add to our ability to develop rapport with other cultures, decrease chances of miscommunication. Students may be asked to demonstrate types of gestures in Japan which may serve as an introduction to and comparison of gestures not generally used by Japanese people, such as pointing to the chest to indicate oneself, raising hands at the side of ones body if one doesnt understand, and crossing ones fingers for good luck (Schmidt-Fajlik, 2006, pp. In F. Barth (ed. Cultures in contact: Studies in cross-cultural interaction. High context vs. Low context- Japan is a high context culture in which nonverbal communication is the norm and “non-talkativeness is encouraged” (Freitag &Stokes, 146). Survey results indicated that a vast majority of students use eye contact when holding a conversation. Another factor may be that the use of certain types of previously accepted types of non-verbal behaviour may have changed over time and across generations due to changing cultural factors, an example which may be found in Argyle and Cooks statement that lack of eye used by Japanese may be partly due to the fact that "infants are carried a lot on the back, so have less visual contact with the mothers face" (1976, p. 26).
Then we will take a look at how it affects people's behavior and use of proxemics. In F. Poyatos, Cross-cultural perspectives in nonverbal communication Perhaps developing awareness of the use of eye contact in terms of positive and negative impressions which may be caused by too much or too little eye contact may be sufficient in improving student use of this aspect of non-verbal communication in that "an aversion to eye contact may give the impression of being bored, disrespectful or unfriendly; too much may appear dominating, intimidating, contemptuous or rude, whereas a shifting gaze may create an impression of being nervous, furtive, insincere or untrustworthy" (Capper, 2000, p. 21).
Differences between Japanese speakers and native English speakers in the use of paralinguistics for the purpose of strategic competence may therefore be a further source of communication breakdown. The survey may be administered with students filling in their responses. a) using body language such as nodding head, c) using words such as so desu ka, naruhodo, d) other: _________________________________________________. Anyway, it's more natural to use my arms in the front than in my back." To them, it is too offensive and intimidating. Eye contact is a very important aspect of non-verbal communication (NVC) as "the eyes are overwhelmingly the most important part of the body of receiving NVC, and, within the range at which they can be observed, the eyes are probably the most important part of the body for sending NVC" (Brosnahan, 1990, p. 105). Bodies may be angled with other people ranging from side-to-side to face-to-face. ( Log Out / Research conducted in this paper seeks to determine which cultural aspects of communication involving non-verbal communication would be important to introduce in my current teaching situation The survey comprised of questions related to culturally determined verbal and non-verbal communicative behavior in areas such as oculesics (eye contact), proxemics (personal space), haptics (touch), kinesics (body language), and paralanguage to determine where the boundaries of these differences may lie as "The critical focus of investigation from this point of view becomes the ethnic boundary that defines the group, not the cultural stuff that it encloses" (Barth, 1969, p. 15). He has a B.F.A. painting. a) about 70% or more. Such a definition of culture in more broad terms allows consideration of those cultural aspects which may play a role in communication when they are an integral aspect of shared knowledge in responding to a particular cultural groups social realities.
), Culture bound (pp. In order to determine which aspects of non-verbal communication to introduce, a review of literature was conducted and a survey was administered to a class of Japanese university students regarding their use of non-verbal behaviour. and avoid stereotyping based on past or incomplete interpretations. Where differences are apparent, these would be determined as being significant in terms of content to be dealt with as they may play a part in potential miscommunication and misunderstanding between a Japanese person and a native English speaker. Seelye, H. (1985). Cambridge: Cambridge. Morain, G. (1986). unless otherwise stated. ELT Journal, 45(1), 16-23. Teaching and assessing intercultural communicative competence. statistical department does not formally gather information However, if these statistics Intercultural differences and communicative approaches to foreign- Research conducted in this paper focuses on an evaluation of differences in the use of non-verbal communication between native English speakers (with a North American focus) and that of Japanese people considering that "FLT has a central aim of enabling learners to use that language to interact with people for whom it is their preferred and natural medium of experience, those we call native speaker (Byram, 1997, p. 3). They may be asked to observe and take notes regarding any idiosyncrasies in the use of non-verbal communication by the people in the video, or differences in the use of such communication in their own culture based on the situation in the video. You can download this cultural profile in an easy-to-read PDF
communication, English language education, cultural differences, Japan, eye contact, Greater sensitivity to the use of non-verbal behaviour when dealing with other cultures may also be developed. He wrote: “The people I know in Japan are extraordinarily intense and devoted to their passions precisely because they tend to be self-denying and restrained in public. In being one of the mostly culturally-influenced part of behaviour, the study of non-verbal communication should therefore be included as part of language learning curricula as "intercultural differences play a significant role when members of the one culture learn the language of the other" (Osterloh, 1986, p. 77). Introduction. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. by comparing instances of the use of proxemic space between themselves with those between native English speakers, or with someone from a different culture then theirs. Hall, E. (1989). Tomalin, B., & Stempelski, S. (1993).
*note: If you answered differently in 1) and 2) please answer why. Join over 300 organisations already creating a better workplace. The Daily Yomiuri, 1859, 12. Paralanguage "includes the nonverbal voice qualities, modifiers, and independent sound constructs we use consciously or unconsciously supporting, contradicting, or accompanying the linguistic, kinesic, or proxemic messages mainly, either simultaneously or alternating with them" (Poyatos, 1988, p. 38). Results regarding the use of paralanguage indicate that Japanese students are aware of the use of body language, vocal segregates and reaction words to indicate that one is listening (and thereby actively being involved in what is being said). 4-5). URL: http://www.immi.se/intercultural/. Toronto: C.J. The pedagogical implications of research findings may serve as a basis for a number of approaches which may be taken to develop student awareness of the use non-verbal communication when communicating with native English speakers (which may also lead to greater sensitivity when communicating in other cross-cultural situations). For example Japanese students may be made aware that the Japanese equivalent of the use of the vocal segregate uh used by native English speakers "to signal that the speaker has not yielded the floor though he is searching for the proper expression" (Brosnahan, 1990, p. 122) is eto or ano.
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